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Written Sources for the Material Culture of the Gold Coast before 1800

A Provisional Checklist
Adam Jones
p. 99

Résumés

Cette contribution présente un catalogue de la culture matérielle en usage sur la Côte de l’Or avant 1800, telle qu’elle est représentée dans les sources écrites publiées. Il s’agit d’un outil au service de ceux, anthropologues, historiens de l’art et archéologues, qui s’intéressent aux objets et à l’usage social qui en était fait. L’auteur met en relief l’importance des sources disponibles sur ce sujet, qui contraste avec l’usage limité et souvent impropre qu’il en est fait. Il propose d’étendre cet outil à d’autres régions.

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Texte intégral

1In a paper originally drafted in 19881, I criticised those who have employed pre-twentieth-century written sources when discussing African material culture – mainly anthropologists, art historians and archaeologists – for the lack of a critical, systematic approach to their subject matter. Written sources, I argued, can be crucial for identifying objects in terms of chronology, geography, use and significance. Moreover – and this has become increasingly apparent since my article was written – the history of the collection and perception of such objects itself deserves our attention. My criticisms were directed partly at the selection of sources – their limited range, the reluctance to consult archival sources, the uncritical citation of secondary sources (including compilations) and poor translations2; but I also drew attention to problems of interpretation – he imaginative reconstruction of the sociocultural context in which objects were used, the use of anachronistic terms, an over-simplistic approach to questions of historical change, unwarranted use of 'negative evidence' (the argument from silence), a reluctance to recognise just how fragmentary the evidence is, and an exaggerated fondness for any source that celebrated the splendours of precolonial monarchies.

2As an alternative approach I proposed an attempt to catalogue and reproduce all the references to individual items of material culture for a given region. Taking the Gold Coast as a possible example, I finished a first draft for a short book on these lines in 1988, but I have never found time to prepare it for publication. Today it would probably make more sense to turn my original project into a website (potentially extendable to other regions and periods). Since I am unlikely to be able do so in the near future, however, I propose here to summarise the main contents, as an initial aid to those doing research on the material culture of this region and as a possible model for those intererested in other regions (or periods) to follow.

3I will deal with items of material culture (objects, materials and practices) in alphabetical order and, under each item, give the main sources in chronological order. In the following list I give :

    1. the date when information is thought to have been collected (or, if that is unknown, the date of publication)3,

  • 2. the author's name,

  • 3. the place(s) on the Gold Coast (taken here to be the coast from Assinie to Accra, rather than the coast of present-day Ghana) to which the information on material culture probably refers,

  • 4. bibliographical / archival details of the version cited here.

4'Material culture' is always a slippery term, and it may be helpful to indicate what I have not covered. I am not here concerned with the mere listing of 'objects', but with descriptions of how objects were used within Gold Coast society. Hence I have in most cases excluded European merchandise, although we now possess some remarkably detailed information on this4. On the other hand, I have included materials used to make objects (e.g. brasswork or paint), partly because the resultant objects are in some cases easier to categorise in this way than in terms of their function. I have, of course, tried to exclude references which were plagiarised from earlier publications.

5In the checklist the page number(s) following the author's name refer to the edition quoted above : for instance, « 1662-9 Müller : 205 » refers to my own translation of Müller in my 1983 book on German Sources for West African History (from which it is easy to proceed to the German original). Since I did this research, several scholarly editions have appeared, thanks largely to the efforts of Selena Winsnes and the late Paul Hair. This is why, for example, I refer to Isert, Rømer and Tilleman in the original rather than in the editions published by Winsnes, which fortunately indicate the original pagination.

6It should be noted that :

  • 1. I have included only those references for which it is clear that they refer to the Gold Coast (rather than to West Africa generally).

  • 2. I have tried where possible to retain the terms used in the sources, even when conscious of the problematic nature of some of them (e.g. 'fetish').

  • 3. Many of the categories chosen are to some extent arbitrary. Since many items fall into more than one category (e.g., a particular necklace might be called an 'ornament' yet be referred to in the source as 'fetish'), I have offered a number of cross-references and in some cases placed the same reference under two different entries.

  • 4. Since the emphasis is on description, travellers' accounts play a much more important role than commercial records or other sources.

  • 5. indicates a detailed description.

  • 6. Where the place referred to is known and differs from that given in the list above, I have indicated it in brackets.

1. Sources Used

71474 Pulgar : Elmina

8Hernando del Pulgar, Crónica de los senores reyes católicos Don Fernando y Dona Isabel..., ed. Juan de Mata Carriazo, 2 vols., Madrid, 1943.

91482 Barros : Elmina

10João de Barros, Asia [1552-1615], transl. and ed., G. R. Crone: London, Hakluyt Society No. LXXX, 2nd series, 1937.

111506 Pacheco Pereira : mainly Elmina

12Duarte Pacheco Pereira, Esmeraldo de situ orbis. Côte occidentale d'Afrique du Sud marocain au Gabon, ed. Raymond Mauny, Bissau, 1956.

131519 Enciso

14Martín Fernándes de Enciso, Suma de geographia que trata de todas las partidas y provincias del mundo, Seville 1519. Translation of the section on West Africa in P. E. H. Hair, « Some minor sources for Guinea, 1519-1559 : Enciso and Alfonce / Fonteneau », History in Africa, 3 (1976), 19-46.

151554 Gainsh

16Robert Gainsh, in Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, London 1589; facsimile, ed. David Beers Quinn et al., Cambridge, 1965, Vol. I, 90-97.

171555 Towrson : Shama / Akong / Mouri

18William Towrson, in Hakluyt, Principall Navigations, Vol. I, 103-111.

191600-01 Marees : Cape Coast, Mouri, Accra

20P.D.M. [Pieter de Marees], Beschrijvinghe ende historische verhael van het Gout Koninckrijck van Gunea, Amsterdam, 1602. Modern translation: Description and Historical Account of the Gold Kingdom of Guinea (1602), ed. Albert van Dantzig and Adam Jones, London: Oxford University Press, 1987.

211601-11 Ruiters

22Dierick Ruiters, Toortse der Zee-Vaert (1623), ed. S. P. l'Honoré Naber, The Hague, 1913.

231603 Ulsheimer : Komenda, Cape Coast, Accra

24« Andreas Josua Ulsheimer's voyage of 1603-4 », in Adam Jones, German Sources for West African History 1599-1669, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1983, 18-43.

251617-20 Brun : Mouri

26« Samuel Brun's voyages of 1611-20 », in Jones, German Sources, 44-96.

271620 Vasconcelos : Elmina

28Agustin Manuel y Vasconcelos, Vida y acciones del Rey Don Juan el Segundo, Decimotercio de Portugal, Madrid, 1639.

291622 Lange / Langius : Mouri

30Jacob de Lange, Demonomanie of Der Mooren Wonderheden: zijnde een verhael, of Voiagie, nae het Moorse Koninckrijck van Guinea, Amsterdam, 1658.

311625 Lam : Elmina area

32Waerachtich verhael van de gantsche reyse ghedaen by den eersamen Jan Dircksz Lam: ende voorts vande nederlaghe aent Casteel de Myna op de Kust van Guinea voorghevallen, Amsterdam, 1626. For the background see Adam Jones, « Sources on early Sierra Leone (22): The visit of a Dutch fleet in 1625 », Africana Research Bulletin, XV, 2 (1986), 33-64.

331629 map

34Algemeen Rijksarchief (Den Haag), Leupe-collectie 743, map of the Gold Coast dated 25 December 1629.

351634 Colombino de Nantes : Komenda

36« Carta de Colombino de Nantes a Peiresc, 20-6-1634 » in A. Brásio, Monumenta Missionaria Africana : Africa Occidental, 1st series, Lisbon, 1952-81, Vol. VIII, 278-288 [In some cases it is not certain that a statement refers specifically to the Gold Coast.]

371639-45 Hemmersam : Elmina

38« Michael Hemmersam's description of the Gold Coast, 1639-45 », in Jones, German Sources, 97-133.

391640 / 1665 Blaeu : Mouri

40Guillaume & Jean Blaeu,

411) Le Theatre du Monde, ou Nouvel Atlas, Vol. 2, Amsterdam, 1640.
2) Achtste Stvck der Aerdrycks-Beschryving, Amsterdam, 1665.

421645-47 Ratelband : Elmina

43K. Ratelband, Vijf dagregisters van het kasteel São Jorge da Mina (Elmina) aan de Goutkust (1645-1647), Den Haag, 1953.

441652-65 Dammaert : Kormantin, Egya

45Algemeen Rijsarchief (The Hague), Aanwinsten 1898 XXII, journal of Louys Dammaert, 1652-56.

461659-69 Zur Eich : Cape Coast, Fetu

47« Hans Jacob Zur Eich's description of the Fetu country, 1659-69 », in Jones, German Sources, 260-268.

481662-69 Müller : Cape Coast, Fetu

49« Wilhelm Johann Müller's description of the Fetu country, 1662-9 », in Jones, German Sources, 134-259.

501666-67 Villault : Cape Coast

51Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, Relation des costes d'Afrique appelées Guinée, Paris, 1669.

521668 Dapper

53Olfert Dapper, Naukeurige Beschrijvinge der Afrikaensche Gewesten, Amsterdam, 1668 ; references here are to the 2nd ed. of 1676.

541669 Elbée : Assinie area

55Le Sieur d'Elbée, « Journal du voyage aux isles, dans la coste de Guinée », in J. de Clodoré, Relation de ce qui s'est passé dans les isles & terre-ferme de l'Amerique, pendant la dernière guerre avec l'Angleterre, Paris, 1671.

561671 Justel : Komenda, Cape Coast, Elmina

57« Relation du voyage fait sur les Costes d'Afrique aux mois de Novembre et Decembre de l'année 1670, Janvier & Février 1671, commençant au Cap Verd », in H. Justel, Recueil de divers voyages faits en Afrique et en l'Amerique, Paris, 1674.

581674 Inventarium : Cape Coast

59Copenhagen, Rigsarkivet, V-gK 187, Inventarium (Frederiksborg), 23 Jan. 1674.

601682 Barbot : mainly Elmina, Cape Coast, Accra

61Barbot on Guinea, The Writings of Nean Barbot on West Africa 1678-1712, ed. P. E. H. Hair, Adam Jones & Robin Law. 2 vols., London, Hakluyt Society, 1992.

621682 Thelwall : Anomabu

63« Richard Thelwall’ letters to Cape Coast », in Robin Law, The English in West Africa 1681-1683 : The Local Correspondence of the Royal African Company of England 1681-1699, Part 1, London, Oxford University Press, for The British Academy, 1997, 92-142.

641682-83 Groeben : Cape Three Points

65« Otto Friedrich von der Groeben's account of his voyage to Guinea », in Adam Jones, Brandenburg Sources for West African History 1680-1700, Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 1985, 23-57.

661682-95 Tilleman : Accra

67Eric Tilleman, En liden enfoldig Beretning om det Landskab Guinea, Copenhagen 1697. Modern English edition by Selena Axelrod Winsnes, A Short and Simple Account of the Country Guinea and its Nature, Madison, African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1994.

681683 Harper : Komenda

69« David Harper’ letters to Cape Coast », in Law, The English, 47-61.

701684 Nieman : Cape Three Points

71« Johann Nieman's letter from Gross-Friedrichsburg » (8 March 1684), in Jones, Brandenburg Sources, 87-89.

721685-90 Jones : Cape Three Points

73Jones, Brandenburg Sources, 100-168.

741686-87 Hillier : Cape Coast

75J. Hillier, « Part of two letters to the Reverend Dr. Bathurst (1688) », Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 232 (Sept. 1697), 687-707.

761688-1704 Bosman : Elmina, Axim

77William Bosman, A new and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea, London, 1705 ; corrections based on the Dutch original (1704) in Albert van Dantzig, « English Bosman and Dutch Bosman : a comparison of texts », History in Africa, 2-11, 1975-84.

781692 Tibierge : Assinie

79« Extrait du journal du Sieur Tibierge », in Paul Roussier, L’établissement d’Issiny 1687-1702, Paris, 1935, 51-70.

801692-93 Oettinger : Cape Three Points

81« Johan Peter Oettinger’s account of his voyage to Guinea », in Jones, Brandenburg Sources, 180-98.

821694 Phillips

83Thomas Phillips, « A journal of a voyage made in ... 1693, 1694 ... to Africa », in A. and J. Churchill, eds., A Collection of Voyages and Travels, 6 vols., London, VI : 173-239.

841698-1702 Damon : Assinie

85« Relation du voyage de Guinée fait en 1698 par M. le Chevalier Damon » and « Relation très curieuses que M. le Chevalier Damon a fait aux Indes pour faire un établissement à Issigny », in Paul Roussier, L’établissement d’Issiny 1687-1702, 73-107.

861701-02 Loyer

87Godefroi Loyer, « Relation du voyage du royaume d’Issiny, Côte d’Or », Paris, 1714 ; reprinted in Paul Roussier, L’établissement d’Issiny 1687-1702, Paris, 1935, 111-234

881703 Van der Broucke & Du Bois

89Report by Jac. van der Broucke & Nic. Du Bois on their voyage to Aquamboe, 27 March 1703, reproduced in A. van Dantzig, The Dutch and the Guinea Coast 1674-1742. A Collection of Documents from the General State Archive at the Hague, Accra, GAAS, 1978, 93-95.

901709-12 Rask : mainly Accra

91Johannes Rask, Ferd til og fra Guinea, 1708-1713: En kort og sandferdig reise beskrivelser til og fra Guinea, Trondheim, 1754.

921710-11 Uring : Appolonia

93A History of the Voyages and Travels of Capt. Nathaniel Uring, London, 1727.

941721-22 Atkins

95John Atkins, A Voyage to Guinea, Brasil and the West-Indies, London, 1735.

961722 Houstoun

97James Houstoun, Some New and Accurate Observations... [on] the Coast of Guinea, London, 1725.

981727 Smith

99William Smith, A New Voyage to Guinea, London, 1744.

1001739-49 Rømer : mainly Accra area

101Ludewig Ferdinand Rømer, Tilforladelig efterretning om kysten Guinea, Copenhagen, 1760. Modern English edition by Selena Axelrod Winsnes, A Reliable Account of the Coast of Guinea (1760), London, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2000.

1021752-56 Thompson : Cape Coast

103Thomas Thompson, An Account of Two Missionary Voyages, London, 1758.

1041766 Huydecoper : Elmina

105Algemeen Rijksarchief (The Hague), N.B.K.G. 300 # 77, Huydecoper 16 July 1766.

1061777 Nettelbeck : Axim, Boutre

107Joachim Nettelbeck, Bürger zu Colberg: Eine Lebensbeschreibung, von ihm selbst aufgezeichnet, 3 vols., Leipzig, 1821-23, Vol. II.

1081783 Isert : mainly Accra

109Paul Erdmann Isert, Reise nach Guinea und den Carabäischen Inseln in Columbien, Copenhagen, 1788. Modern English edition by Selena Axelrod Winsnes, Letters on West Africa and the Slave Trade. Paul Erdmann Isert's Journey to Guinea and the Caribbean Islands in Columbia (1788), London, Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 1992.

2. Checklist

110AGRI / AKORI / CONTA DA TERRA

111506 Pacheco Pereira 114
1554 Gainsh 96
1674 Inventarium
1682 Barbot 494, 528, 605
1688-1702 Bosman 119
1692 Tibierge 66
1701-02 Loyer 161*, 179*
1739-49 Rømer 115
1752-56 Thompson 60
1783-86 Isert 186-7*

112ANOINTING

1131662-69 Müller 205
1668 Dapper 98
1682 Barbot 560
1701-02 Loyer 170
1783-6 Isert 189, 192-3*, 194
See: COSMETICS

114ASSEGAIS

1151482 Barros 117
1555 Towrson 106-7
1600-01 Marees 17a, 41b, 44b, 45a, 46b*, 50a, 53a, 64b, 65a, 66a, 86a
1603 Ulsheimer 34 - 1617-20
1617-20 Brun 88, 92, 95
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1634 Colombino 286
1639-45 Hemmersam 107, 116*
1645-47 Ratelband 160
1662-69 Müller 195-6*, 319
1666-67 Villault 241, 315, 317, 355
1679 Barbot 305, 344-6 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 493, 565, 606, 609
1688-1702 Bosman 186*
1701-02 Loyer 162, 180
1739-49 Rømer 119, 220

116BAGS / SACKS

1171617-20 BRUN 92
1625 Lam 12
1662-69 Müller 170, 173, 197, 199, 221, 240, 245
1679 Barbot 346
1727 Smith 125
1783-86 Isert 35
See: PURSES

118BARK-CLOTH / BARK-CORD

1191555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 12b, 13b, 19b, 35a, 46b, 61b, 62a
1639-45 Hemmersam 109
1662-69 Müller 193, 194, 197, 205, 245, 255
1682 Barbot 534
1701-02 Loyer 171, 180, 213-4
1772 Nettelbeck 81
1783-86 Isert 188, 193

120BARNS / GRANARIES / SHEDS

1211600-01 Marees 20a, 56b
1662-69 Müller 222
1682 Barbot 512
1701-02 Loyer 169

122BASINS / CAULDRONS / PANS

1231600-01 Marees 19b, 25b-27a*, 91b, 95b
1662-69 Müller 172, 202, 203*, 315
1668 Dapper 101
1674 Inventarium
1682 Barbot 482, 512, 560
1688-1702 Bosman 208
1701-02 Loyer 217
1739-49 Rømer 191-2
1752-56 Thompson 59-60

124BASINS, AS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

1251600-01 Marees 87b, 91b, 92b
1662-69 Müller 214, 257
1682 Barbot 564, 567
1684 Nieman 88

126BASKETS

1271600-01 Marees 13b, 16b, 53b, 61a, 63a, 101b
1662-69 Müller 233, 244, 253, 316
1666-67 Villault 286
1668 Dapper 101, 104
1682 Barbot 482, 516
1685-90 Jones 125-43
See: FETISH-BASKETS

128BEADS5

1291600-01 Marees 26a-b*, 27a, 40b (Komenda), 42b, 89b
1629 map
See: AGRI

130BEDS

1311600-01 Marees 11a-b
1603 Ulsheimer 33
1617-20 Brun 87
1662-69 Müller 202*, 217, 316
1666-67 Villault 243
1668 Dapper 101
1679 Barbot 340
1682 Barbot 504, 512
1701-03 Loyer 182
1710-11 Uring 139
1721-22 Atkins 99 (Cape Coast)

132BELLS / GONGS

1331482 Barros 117, 118
1600-01 Marees 51a, 62a, 86a, 87b
1603 Ulsheimer 30
1622 Lange 56
1634 Colombino 286
1662-69 Müller
162-3, 183, 186, 196
1679 Barbot 345-6
1682 Barbot 564, 567
1684 Nieman 89
1688-1702 Bosman 139
1701-02 Loyer 219-20
1739-49 Rømer 241

134BELTS / BANDOLEERS /GIRDLES

1351600-01 Marees 44b, 46a-b, 65a
1682 Barbot 517, 605
1688-1702 Bosman 185*
1783-86 Isert 35, 183

136BOWS AND ARROWS

1371555 Towrson 106-7
1600-01 Marees 45a, 46b
1639-45 Hemmersam 124
1662-69 Müller 186, 193-4*, 318-9
1666-67 Villault 315, 355
1668 Dapper 101
1679 Barbot 344 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 605f
1688-1702 Bosman 186
1739-49 Rømer 119
1783-86 Isert 35

138BRASSWORK

1391674 Inventarium - 1688-1702 Bosman 86, 128, 187

140BREAD / FLOUR / KENKEY

1411554 Gainsh 97*
1600-01 Marees 20a, 57a*
1617-20 Brun 85
1639-45 Hemmersam 110*
1662-69 Müller 207-8*, 222
1666-67 Villault 245-6* (influenced by De Marees)
1679 Barbot 304, 319 (Kormantin)
1682 Barbot 512
1693-94 Phillips 202 (Dixcove)
1701-02 Loyer 184*
1721-22 Atkins 76 (Cape Three Points)

142BROOMS / BRUSHES

1431600-01 Marees 38b
1662-69 Müller 316-7

144BUSTLES (atofo)

1451662-69 Müller 205

146CALABASHES

1471600-01 Marees 21b
1617-20 Brun 88
1639-45 Hemmersam 117, 125
1662-69 Müller 170, 182, 202, 211, 222, 257, 315
1666-67 Villault 233
1668 Dapper 101
1679 Barbot 345-6 (illustration)

148CALENDARS

1491622 Lange 44
1662-69 Müller 154

150CANDLES

1511682 Barbot 518
CANES / LONG STICKS

1521600-01 Marees 16b, 46b, 92a
1634 Colombino 285
1639-45 Hemmersam 112
1662-69 Müller 182, 205*
1685-90 Jones 128, 167

153CANEWORK

1541600-01 Marees 44b
1659-69 Zur Eich 262
1666-67 Villault 236
1688-1702 Bosman 288
See: BASKETS; FISHING TACKLE

155CANOES

1561600-01 Marees 13b, 14a (illustration), 28b, 40b, 43a (Accra), 45b, 58b-60a*
1662-69 Müller 231, 233, 254*, 309-11
1666-67 Villault 198, 320, 325
1668 Dapper 102, 103
1669 Elbée 370
1679 Barbot 289 (Komenda), 304 (Cape Coast)*, 345-6 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 516, 518f, 529-33*
1688-1702 Bosman 129*
1692 Tibierge 66
1694 Phillips 211 (Accra)
1701-02 Loyer 160, 180
See: PADDLES

157CARVINGS, WOODEN

1581662-69 Müller 174
1679 Barbot 335
1783-86 Isert 228

159CHAINS

1601554 Gainsh 96
1674 Inventarium
1688-1702 Bosman 185
1783-86 Isert 183

161CHESTS / BOXES

1621600-01 Marees 39a
1659-69 Zur Eich 266-7
1662-69 Müller 203, 314
1671 Justel 16 (Komenda)
1701-02 Loyer 166, 183, 211
1721-22 Atkins 80 (Cape Three Points), 105 (Cape Coast)

163CHISELS / NAILS

1641600-01 Marees 59b
1662-69 Müller 254
1682 Barbot 529
1701-02 Loyer 185

165CLAY / MUD

166See : BEDS
See : FETISH
See : FETISH-HUTS
See : HOUSES
See : HOUSES OF KINGS

167CLOTH (AFRICAN)

1681600-01 Marees 91b - 1629 map (Wanquie, Insoco)
1662-69 Müller 186, 202, 206, 302
1668 Dapper 88, 109
1674 Inventarium
1701-02 Loyer 190
1783-86 Isert 226

169CLOTHING (MEN; STATUS UNSPECIFIED)

1701482 Barros 117
1506 Pacheco Pereira 115
1620 Vasconcelos
1665 Blaeu
1668 Dapper 103
1671 Justel 16 (Komenda)
1679 Barbot 304
1682 Barbot 493*, 560
1721-22 Atkins 99
1783-86 Isert 35-6, 183-5*, 220
See: WAR-DRESS

171CLOTHING (MEN; HIGH STATUS)

1721555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 17a
1617-20 Brun 66 (Acanish traders)
1639-45 Hemmersam 112
1662-69 Müller 182, 186
1666-67 Villault 219-20, 316
1682 Barbot 494, 594
1688-1702 Bosman 119
1701-02 Loyer 161, 171*

173CLOTHING (MEN; LOW STATUS)

1741555 Towrson 106
1662-69 Müller 203-5*
1688-1702 Bosman 120
1701-02 Loyer 171

175CLOTHING (WOMEN)

1761600-01 Marees 87b
1640 Blaeu
1666-67 Villault 226-8*, 315
1671 Justel 15 (Komenda)
1694 Phillips 201
1701 Godot 269, 271
1701-02 Loyer

177CLOTHING (SACRAL)

1781666-67 Villault 275
1701-02 Loyer 214

179CLUBS

1801600-01 Marees 66a
1694 Phillips 212 (Accra)

181COFFINS / BIERS

1821600-01 Marees 91a, 92a
1622 Lange 56
1634 Colombino 285
1639-45 Hemmersam 123
1662-69 Müller 257
1666-67 Villault 286
1668 Dapper 107
1682 Barbot 591
1688-1702 Bosman 230
1701-02 Loyer 211
1721-22 Atkins 105
1739-49 Rømer 221, 227
1783-86 Isert 219

183COLLARS (AS WAR-DRESS)

1841600-01 Marees 44b
1688-1702 Bosman 185
COMBS

1851600-01 Marees 18b*
1662-69 Müller 155, 206*, 255
1679 Barbot 345-6 (illustrations)
1701-02 Loyer 170
1709-12 Rask 137-8
1739-49 Rømer 86

186COPPERWORK / COPPERWARE

187See : BASINS (x 2)
See : BRASSWARE
See : KEYS
See : ORNAMENTS (2)
See : SHIELDS
See : WEIGHTS

188COSMETICS

1891600-01 Marees 18b, 34a, 44b, 86a, 87a
1603 Ulsheimer 31
1662-69 Müller 161, 206*, 207
1666-67 Villault 225
1679 Barbot 347 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 495
1682-83 Groeben 52
1701-02 Loyer 214
1721-22 Atkins (Cape Three Points)
1739-49 Rømer 243
1783-86 Isert 189-90*
See : WAR-DRESS

190CUSHIONS / PILLOWS

1911662-69 Müller 202, 316
1666-67 Villault 243
1682 Barbot 512
See : HEAD-RESTS

192CUTLERY

1931662-69 Müller 211, 315
See : KNIVES; SPOONS
DISHES / BOWLS (WOODEN, OR MATERIAL UNSPECIFIED)

1941600-01 Marees 19b, 20a
1634 Colombino 285
1639-45 Hemmersam 111, 210, 244
1668 Dapper 94
1682-95 Tilleman 117
1688-1702 Bosman 80-81
1694 Phillips 202 (Axim)
1701-02 Loyer 183f
1777 Nettelbeck 56

195DRUMS

1961482 Barros 117
1600-01 Marees 45a, 51a, 87b
1617-20 Brun 92
1662-69 Müller 182, 186, 198f, 214, 257, 318
1666-67 Villault 311, 356-7
1697 Barbot 345-6 (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 564, 566f*, 607
1682-83 Groeben 52
1684 Nieman 88
1688-1702 Bosman 139*, 140
1686-87 Hillier 689
1709-12 Rask*
1701-02 Loyer 160, 220
1722 Houstoun 17 (Cape Three Points)
1739-49 Rømer 63*, 65*, 135
1783-86 Isert 38*, 229*

197FANS

1981666-67 Villault 310-11, 316
See : TAILS

199FENCES / HEDGES / WALLS / GATES

2001600-01 Marees 38b, 39a, 43a, 57b
1617-20 Brun 85*
1639-45 Hemmersam 110
1662-69 Müller 222
1682 Barbot 511
1688-1702 Bosman 288
1692-93 Oettiner 185
1701-02 Loyer 164f, 182

201'FETISH' etc.

2021600-01 Marees 33a-37b*, 39a, 60a
1603 Ulsheimer 31, 36
1639-45 Hemmersam 119
1666-67 Villault 262, 272
1679 Barbot 335 (illustration)*
1682 Barbot 494, 527, 531, 572, 578-80*
1682-83 Groeben 53
1683 Harper
1686-87 Hillier 687
1688-1702 Bosman 150, 223
1692 Tibierge 65
1698-1702 Damon 98
1701-02 Loyer 213-6*, 349, 352
1752-56 Thompson 51-2

203'FETISH BAG' / 'FETISH BASKET'

2041639-45 Hemmersam 120
1662-69 Müller 162*, 166, 186, 198, 202-3, 221
1666-67 Villault 280
1679 Barbot 335
1682 Barbot 572

205'FETISH' CORDS / NECKLACES / CLOTHING

2061600-01 Marees 12b, 34a, 35a, 44b, 86b
1662-69 Müller 161f
1666-67 Villault 236*
1688-1702 Bosman 123
1709-12 Rask 134
1721-22 Atkins 94-5

207'FETISH HUTS' / SHRINES

2081600-01 Marees 33b*, 34a
1603 Ulsheimer 30
1639-45 Hemmersam 108 (Fetu)
1662-69 Müller 164f
1666-67 Villault 271 (Cape Coast)
1682 Barbot 582
1739-49 Rømer 58-9, 68*
1752-6 Thompson 63

209'FETISH RODS'

2101639-45 Hemmersam 108 (Fetu)
1662-69 Müller 161*, 182
1666-67 Villault 263-4, 271f
1709-12 Rask 259-60*
1739-49 Rømer 74-5

211'FETISH TREES'

2121666-67 Villault 262
1682 Barbot 608
1682 Thelwall 108-9

213FIGURES (TERRACOTTA)

2141600-01 Marees 93b
1662-69 Müller 258
1682 Barbot 582, 595f*
1688-1702 Bosman 232

215FISHING TACKLE

2161600-01 Marees 26b, 43b, 60b-63a*
1662-69 Müller 231-3*, 309f
1666-67 Villault 326f
1679 Barbot 281 (Axim)
1682 Barbot 519-521*
1688-1702 Bosman 129f
1701-02 Loyer 180*
1727 Smith 123 (Cape Coast)
1783-86 Isert 239

217FLAGS etc.

2181600-01 Marees 86b
1662-69 Müller 145, 168, 197
1671 Justel 19 (Elmina)
1682 Barbot 565f, 606
1684 Nieman 89
1694 Phillips 212 (Accra)
1698-1702 Damon 79
1727 Smith 119 (Dixcove)
1752-56 Thompson 42 - 1783-86 Isert 39

219FLAX

2201783-86 Isert 239

221FLUTES / WHISTLES

2221639-45 Hemmersam 124
1666-67 Villault 311
1682 Barbot 564, 567
1739-49 Rømer 241-2*
1783-86 Isert 229

223GAMES

2241783-86 Isert 227-8*

225GOLDWORK

2261554 Gainsh 96
1555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 42b, 46a, 86b
1645-47 Ratelband 76
1659-69 Zur Eich 267
1662-69 Müller 253-4*
1665 Blaeu
1666-67 Villault 311, 393f*
1671 Justel 20f (Cape Coast)
1674 Inventarium
1679 Barbot 304 (Cape Coast), 337f (Accra), 339*, 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 494, 503, 527f*, 594
1685-90 Jones 153
1688-1702 Bosman 128, 182, 185
1692-93 Oettinger 186, 188
1694 Phillips 198 (Bassam Picolo)
1701-02 Loyer 162
1709-12 Rask 153
1721-22 Atkins 100, 195
1739-49 Rømer 115, 191f
1766 Huydecoper*
1783-86 Isert 188.
See : ORNAMENTS

227GRATERS

2281662-69 Müller 316

229GRAVES / TOMBS

2301600-01 Marees 46a, 92a
1603 Ulsheimer 31
1622 Lange 56f
1634 Colombino 285
1639-45 Hemmersam 117
1662-69 Müller 258
1666-67 Villault 291f, 345f
1682 Barbot 590f, 595
1688-1702 Bosman 231f

231GUITARS / LUTES / CITTERNS

2321600-01 Marees 87b
1666-67 Villault 311
1671 Justel 15 (Komenda)
1679 Barbot 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 564, 567
1684 Nieman 88
1688-1702 Bosman 140
1783-86 Isert 230f*

233HAIR / BEARDS, DECORATION OF

2341600-01 Marees 16b, 87a
1639-45 Hemmersam 109
1662-69 Müller 182, 204-6, 216, 258
1666-67 Villault 224f
1679 Barbot 347 (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 494f*
1688-1702 Bosman 119
1694 Phillips 201 (Axim)
1701-02 Loyer 171, 179
1709-12 Rask 135-8*, 153*
1739-49 Rømer 86*
1783-86 Isert 185f*, 189
See : ORNAMENTS

235HAMMERS / MALLETS

2361682 Barbot 527
1783-86 Isert 239

237HAMMOCKS

2381662-69 Müller 168, 186
1671 Justel 17 (Komenda)
1679 Barbot 290 (Komenda)
1682 Barbot 594
1692 Tibierge 54

239HATS / CAPS

2401555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 13b, 16b, 17a*, 21b, 65a, 92a
1617-20 Brun 86
1639-45 Hemmersam 113
1640 Blaeu
1662-69 Müller 182, 204f, 207, 212f, 255, 316
1666-67 Villault 220-1
1679 Barbot 345f (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 494, 534, 566, 571
1688-1702 Bosman 119f, 194
1701-02 Loyer 161, 171f*
1709-12 Rask 153*

241HEAD-RESTS

2421600-01 Marees 11b, 91b
1682 Barbot 504, 512
1701-02 Loyer 183

243HELMETS

2441482 Barros 117
1600-01 Marees 44b
1662-69 Müller 196f*, 319
1666-67 Villault 316, 354, 393
1668 Dapper 65, 111
1679 Barbot 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 605
1688-1702 Bosman 185
1709-12 Rask 92
1783-86 Isert 36f*

245HOES / MATTOCKS

2461662-69 Müller 221
1701-02 Loyer 210
1783-86 Isert 224

247HOOPS (FOR DANCING)

2481682 Barbot 564
HOOVES (AS ORNAMENT / STATUS SYMBOL)

2491662-69 Müller 205, 209

250HORNS (IVORY)

2511482 Barros 117
1600-01 Marees 26b, 45a, 47a, 48a-b
1622 Lange 56
1662-69 Müller 169, 182f, 186, 198f, 255, 257, 318
1666-67 Villault 314f, 356f
1671 Justel 20 (Elmina)
1674 Inventarium
1679 Barbot 339, 345f (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 518, 564, 606
1684 Nieman 88
1686-87 Hillier 689
1688-1702 Bosman 135f*, 138f*
1701-02 Loyer 160, 220-1*
1709-12 Rask 63
1710-11 Uring 138
1722 Houstoun 17 (Cape Three Points)
1739-49 Rømer 241
1783-86 Isert 38*

252HORNS OF ANIMALS

2531662-69 Müller 196, 205
1668 Dapper 65
1682 Barbot 494, 591
1684 Nieman 89
1692-93 Oettinger 186
1701-02 Loyer 213

254HOUSES

2551554 Gainsh 96
1600-01 Marees 11a, 38a-39a*, 45a, 45b, 51b, 56b, 57b
1603 Ulsheimer 33
1617-20 Brun 85, 86*
1639-45 Hemmersam 108, 111
1659-69 Zur Eich 262
1662-69 Müller 139f, 201-2*, 222, 314
1666-67 Villault 240f, 241f*, 243f
1679 Barbot 280 (Axim), 304 (Cape Coast)
1682 Barbot 504, 511f*, 533, 607
1688-1702 Bosman 288
1692 Tibierge 63f*
1692-93 Oettinger 185
1701-02 Loyer 178, 182*
1710-11 Uring 139, 160 (Cape Coast)
1721-22 Atkins 99 (Cape Coast)
1739-49 Rømer 237
1752-56 Thompson 34
See : BARNS
See : FENCES

256HOUSES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

2571688-1702 Bosman 2110, 212
1701-02 Loyer 207
See : 'FETISH-HUTS'

258HOUSES OF KINGS

2591600-01 Marees 39a*, 48a
1662-69 Müller 182
1666-67 Villault 334-5
1682 Barbot 594 (Accra)
1701-02 Loyer 161, 164f

260IMPLEMENTS (MISCELLANEOUS)

2611600-01 Marees 61a (for stringing fish)
1639-45 Hemmersam 122 (medical)
1662-69 Müller 201 (for smoothing walls), 208 (for removing kenkey from boiling water), 230 (for extracting lime-juice), 253 (for gold-mining)
1666-67 Villault 234 (for carrying babies), 330 (for measuring a quantity of fish)

262IRONWORK

2631555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 26a, 42b, 46b, 89b
1662-69 Müller 254*, 312
1688-1702 Bosman 128*
See : ASSEGAIS
See : BELLS
See : BOWS & ARROWS
See : CHAINS
See : CHESTS
See : HOES
See : KEYS
See : MACHETES
See : MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
See : ORNAMENTS (2)
See : SHIELDS

264IVORY WORK

265See : COMBS
See : ORNAMENTS (2)
See : FLUTES
See : HORNS

266KEYS (AS ORNAMENTS)

2671600-01 Marees 19b, 26b
1603 Ulsheimer 33f
1662-69 Müller 205, 314
1666-67 Villault 227
1671 Justel 15 (Komenda)
1701-02 Loyer 177 (influenced by Villault?)
1739-49 Rømer 87
1783-86 Isert 192

268KNIVES

2691600-01 Marees 19b, 26a, 88b
1662-69 Müller 171
1679 Barbot 344-6 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 529
1701-02 Loyer 151
1783-86 Isert 35

270LATRINES

2711600-01 Marees 15b
1682 Barbot 511
1701-02 Loyer 48-9

272LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 1. ELEPHANT

2731600-01 Marees 65a
1639-45 Hemmersam 124
1662-69 Müller 168
1679 Barbot 346
1701-02 Loyer 220
1709-12 Rask 105

274LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 2. LEOPARD

2751600-01 Marees 65a
1662-69 Müller 242
1671 Justel 16 (Komenda)
1679 Barbot 346 (illustration)
1739-49 Rømer 237

276LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 3. CROCODILE

2771688-1702 Bosman 185
LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 4. DOG; GOAT, SHEEP

2781600-01 Marees 16b, 46a-47a, 91b
1662-69 Müller 162, 254
1688-1702 Bosman 120
1701-02 Loyer 220

279LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 5. COW, OX

2801600-01 Marees 46b
1666-67 Villault 243

281LEATHER / SKIN / HIDE: 6. VARIOUS

2821600-01 Marees 44b
1662-69 Müller 161, 194, 196f, 202, 204, 252
1666-67 Villault 355
1684 Nieman 89
1679 Barbot 346 (illustration)
1682 Barbot 512, 605
1682-83 Groeben 53
1688-1702 Bosman 152, 185f
1701-02 Loyer 215, 219
1783-86 Isert 36

283MACHETES / CUTLASSES

2841600-01 Marees 14a, 26a, 56a, 59b
1622 Lange 46
1662-69 Müller 201, 220f
1682 Barbot 516
1692 Tibierge 54
1703 Van den Broucke & Du Bois

285MATS

2861600-01 Marees 11a-12a, 13b, 59b
1662-69 Müller 165, 202, 217
1666-67 Villault 243, 295
1668 Dapper 101
1682 Barbot 504f, 512, 531
1688-1702 Bosman 128
1701-02 Loyer 166
1710-11 Uring 139
1777 Nettelbeck 81
1783-86 Isert 228

287MONEY

2881600-01 Marees 32b*, 97b
1639-45 Hemmersam 83
1662-69 Müller 244
1668 Dapper 111
1679 Barbot 340
1682 Barbot 528, 548 (Accra)
1692 Tibierge 66
1701-02 Loyer 179
1721-22 Atkins 185

289MORTARS

2901682 Barbot 512
1701-02 Loyer 184f
See : BREAD

291MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS (MISCELLANEOUS)

2921600-01 Marees 87b
1666-67 Villault 311
1682 Barbot 564, 567
1701-02 Loyer 221*
1710-11 Uring 138
1739-49 Rømer 242
1783-86 Isert*
See : DRUMS
See : FLUTES
See : GUITARS
See : HORNS

293NEEDLES

2941679 Barbot 345f (illustration)

295NETS

2961600-01 Marees 62a-63a
1662-69 Müller 243
1679 Barbot 304 (Cape Coast)
1688-1702 Bosman 286
1701-02 Loyer
See : FLAX

297ORNAMENTS: 1. HAIR / BEARD / FOREHEAD / EARS

2981482 Barros 117f
1600-01 Marees 48b
1603 Ulsheimer 33
1617-20 Brun 87, 93
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1634 Colombino 287
1639-45 Hemmersam 113
1652-56 Dammaert (1 Jan. 1654)
1662-69 Müller 182, 186, 204-6
1666-67 Villault 225, 393f
1679 Barbot 347 (illustration)
1688-1702 Bosman 119
1694 Phillips 198 (Bassam Piccolo)
1701-02 Loyer 161f, 171
1709-12 Rask 136-8*
1721-22 Atkins 183
1739-49 Rømer 87
1783-86 Isert 189
See : GOLDWORK

299ORNAMENTS: 2. NECK / ARMS / LEGS

3001482 Barros 118
1554 Gainsh 96*
1600-01 Marees 16b-17a*, 26a, 48b, 87a
1603 Ulsheimer 33
1617-20 Brun 86f
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1622 Lange 50
1639-45 Hemmersam 109
1645-47 Ratelband 224
1652-56 Dammaert (1 Jan. 1654)
1662-69 Müller 173, 182, 186, 204-7*, 255
1666-67 Villault 221, 225-7, 263, 394
1679 Barbot 305, 345f (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 494, 565
1688-1702 Bosman 119f, 128, 189
1694 Phillips 206
1701-02 Loyer 162, 177
1709-12 Rask 138
1721-22 Atkins 79f (Cape Three Points), 95 (Cape Coast)
1739-49 Rømer 192 (Asante)
1783-86 Isert 186-8*, 190f*

301ORNAMENTS: 3. BREASTS / STOMACH / WAIST / LOINS

3021701-02 Loyer 162
1709-12 Rask 130
1739-49 Rømer 87
1783-86 Isert 192

303ORNAMENTS: 4. FEET

3041739-49 Rømer 87
1783-86 Isert 191

305ADDLES

3061600-01 Marees 14a, 58b
1679 Barbot 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 529
1688-1702 Bosman 129
1701-02 Loyer 212

307PAINT / COLOURING / DYES

3081600-01 Marees 13b, 38b, 47b, 60a, 86b, 87a, 89b, 91b
1662-69 Müller 196, 205
1701-02 Loyer 164
1739-49 Rømer 63, 74f
See : CLOTH
See : CLOTHING

309PALM TREE (USES OF)

3101482 Barros 117
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1662-69 Müller 224
1688-1702 Bosman 285-8*
See : HOUSES
See : PALM WINE

311PALM WINE, TAPPING AND SERVING OF

3121554 Gainsh 97
1600-01 Marees 21b, 38b
1617-20 Brun 85
1639-45 Hemmersam 110*, 117
1662-69 Müller 212, 223*
1665 Blaeu
1666-67 Villault 249
1679 Barbot 304 (Cape Coast)
1688-1702 Bosman 285-7*
1701-02 Loyer 185f*

313PEWTERWARE

314See : BASINS
See : ORNAMENTS (2)
See : WEIGHTS

315POTTERY

3161600-01 Marees 26a, 32a, 34a, 35b, 39a
1639-45 Hemmersam 114
1662-69 Müller 173, 202, 208, 210, 223, 244, 255*, 315f
1666-67 Villault 246
1668 Dapper 101
1679 Barbot 304 (Cape Coast)
1682 Barbot 482, 512, 533
1688-1702 Bosman 128, 309
1701-02 Loyer 183, 185f, 211
1721-22 Atkins 99 (Cape Coast)
1739-49 Rømer 68

317PURSES

3181600-01 Marees 13b, 19b, 23a
1662-69 Müller 209
1682 Barbot 517
1701-02 Loyer 177

319RAZORS

3201701-02 Loyer 171

321ROPES / CORDS

3221600-01 Marees 61b
1622 Lange 44
1639-45 Hemmersam 109
1662-69 Müller 197, 202
1688-1702 Bosman 286
1701-02 Loyer 218
1783-86 Isert 35
See : BARKCLOTH
See : DRUMS
See : FETISH CORDS

323RUSHES / REEDS / GRASS / STRAW

324See : BASKETS
See : BROOMS
See : CANES
See : FENCES
See : GUITARS
See : HOUSES
See : MATS
See : ORNAMENTS (1)
See : SHIELDS
See : STRAW WISPS
See : TOBACCO PIPES
See : TRAPS
See : WREATHS

325SAILS

3261600-01 Marees 59b
1679 Barbot 289
1783-86 Isert 226

327SALT, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF

3281600-01 Marees
1662-69 Müller 244
1682 Barbot 482
1692 Tibierge 64*
1688-1702 Bosman 308*

329SCARIFICATION

3301554 Gainsh 96
1600-01 Marees 18b-19a*, 88b, 89b
1682 Barbot 495*
1721-22 Atkins 88
1783-86 Isert 233-4*

331SHELLS

3321474 Pulgar 206f
1506 Pacheco Pereira 114
1519 Enciso 33
1600-01 Marees 46a
1662-69 Müller 166, 195, 204
1666-67 Villault 225
1669 Elbée 369
1674 Inventarium
1679 Barbot 339, 345f
1682 Barbot 495
1688-1702 Bosman 185
1701-02 Loyer 162
1783-86 Isert 186, 190, 196

333SHIELDS

3341482 Barros 117
1555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 44b, 46b*, 86a
1603 Ulsheimer 34
1617-20 Brun 87, 92
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1634 Colombino 286
1645-47 Ratelband 160
1662-69 Müller 186, 196*, 318
1666-67 Villault 315, 355
1668 Dapper 112 (mainly from De Marees)
1679 Barbot 305
1682 Barbot 565, 605f*, 609
1684 Nieman 89
1688-1702 Bosman 136*, 186*, 189, 203
1701-02 Loyer 219f*

335SHRINES

336See : 'FETISH HUTS'

337SIEVES

3381662-69 Müller 210
1682-95 Tilleman 117

339SILVERWORK

3401662-69 Müller 182, 205
1688-1702 Bosman 128
1783-86 Isert 183, 188, 191f

341SKULLS / BONES: 1. HUMAN

3421600-01 Marees 46a, 53a, 93b
1603 Ulsheimer 23
1617-20 Brun 93, 95
1634 Colombino 286
1639-45 Hemmersam 117
1662-69 Müller 199f
1666-67 Villault 316, 355, 357
1682 Barbot 566, 605, 607
1686-87 Hillier 689
1688-1702 Bosman 150
1694 Phillips 201f (Axim)
1721-22 Atkins 77-80 (Cape Three Points)
1727 Smith 117
1739-49 Rømer 132*, 135

343SKULLS / BONES: 2. ANIMAL

3441600-01 Marees 46a, 47b, 86b, 87a
1603 Ulsheimer 33f
1620 Vasconcelos 83
1662-69 Müller 195
1666-67 Villault 275
1668 Dapper 65 (Elmina)
1671 Justel 17
1679 Barbot 335
1682 Barbot 527, 591, 605
1688-1702 Bosman 150, 185
1739-49 Rømer 76
1783-86 Isert

345SLINGS

3461662-69 Müller 221f

347SPOONS / LADLES

3481600-01 Marees 95b
1679 Barbot 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 528
1783-86 Isert 192

349STICKS (SHORT)

350See : BASINS AS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
See : BELLS
See : BREAD
See : CLUBS
See : DRUMS
See : SKULLS (1)

351STOOLS / CHAIRS

3521482 Barros 117
1555 Towrson 106f
1600-01 Marees 14a, 48b, 58b, 65a, l86a, 86b
1617-20 Brun 88
1620 Vasconcelos 84
1622 Lange 47
1639-45 Hemmersam 117
1662-69 Müller 168, 186, 202, 211, 255, 316
1666-67 Villault 320
1668 Dapper 101, 106 (Axim)
1671 Justel 16 (Komenda)
1679 Barbot 345f (illustrations)
1682 Barbot 494, 512, 516
1688-1702 Bosman 128, 188
1701-02 Loyer 183*, 211
1739-49 Rømer 69

353'STRAW-WISPS'

3541600-01 Marees 87b, 91b
1639-45 Hemmersam 120
1666-67 Villault 263
1701-02 Loyer 213f

355SWORDS / SABRES

3561555 Towrson 106
1600-01 Marees 44b, 46a*, 53a
1603 Ulsheimer 34
1617-20 Brun 88, 92, 95
1639-45 Hemmersam 116, 120
1645-47 Ratelband 160
1662-69 Müller 186, 194f*, 197, 318
1666-67 Villault 316-8, 320, 325, 355
1668 Dapper 65 (Elmina), 111
1671 Justel 17 (Komenda)
1674 Inventarium
1679 Barbot 339, 344-6 (illustrations)*
1682 Barbot 565f, 605f*, 609
1686-87 Hillier 687
1688-1702 Bosman 128, 185*, 188, 203
1694 Phillips 201 (Axim)
1701-02 Loyer 162, 179
1739-49 Rømer 119, 220
1783-86 Isert 35, 37f*

357TABLES

3581662-69 Müller 168, 202, 314
1666-67 Villault 243
1671 Justel 16 (Komenda)
1682 Barbot 512f
1682-83 Groeben 45

359TAILS: 1. ELEPHANT

3601600-01 Marees 65a
1601-11 Ruiters 311*
1639-45 Hemmersam 124
1640 Blaeu
1662-69 Müller 258
1682 Barbot 564
1682-83 Groeben 39
1688-1702 Bosman 194
1709-12 Rask 105

361TAILS: 2. HORSE

3621600-01 Marees 26b, 86a, 87b
1662-69 Müller 196
1688-1702 Bosman 185

363TAILS: 3. VARIOUS

3641600-01 Marees 48b
1639-45 Hemmersam 123
1666-67 Villault 310f
1682 Barbot 494, 566
1684 Nieman 89
1692-93 Oettinger 186

365'THRONES'

3661701-02 Loyer 161
1739-49 Rømer 191f, 221, 227 (Asante)
See : STOOLS

367TOBACCO-PIPES

3681639-45 Hemmersam 117
1662-69 Müller 244, 255
1679 Barbot 288 (Komenda), 345f (illustration)
1682 Barbot 516
1688-1702 Bosman 306
1701-02 Loyer 161
1752-56 Thompson 48 (Anomabu)

369TOOTH-STICKS

3701600-01 Marees 14b, 19b, 87a-b
1662-69 Müller 153*
1666-67 Villault 214
1783-86 Isert 232f

371TOOTH-CORDS (i.e. strings of teeth)

3721662-69 Müller 166
1682 Barbot 605
1701-02 Loyer 162, 209

373TORCHES (for fishing at night)

3741600-01 Marees 61a
1662-69 Müller 233

375TRAPS

3761600-01 Marees 64b, 65a
1639-45 Hemmersam 108
1662-69 Müller 241

377UMBRELLAS / PARASOLS

3781679 Barbot 305 (Cape Coast)
1688-1702 Bosman 189
1692 Tibierge 62
1703 Van den Broucke & Du Bois
1783-86 Isert 39

379WAR-DRESS

3801600-01 Marees 44b*
1617-20 Brun 95
1625 Lam 12
1639-45 Hemmersam 116
1662-69 Müller 197
1666-67 Villault 355
1684 Nieman 89
1688-1702 Bosman 185*
1709-12 Rask 90-92*
1783-86 Isert 37*
See : COSMETICS
See : HELMETS

381WEAPONS (VARIOUS)

3821600-01 Marees 29b, 32a, 44b
1617-20 Brun 94
1682 Barbot 512, 565

383WEIGHTS / SCALES

3841600-01 Marees 29b-30a*, 43a (Accra)
1640 Blaeu
1662-69 Müller 244f, 249, 306-8
1666-67 Villault 253f
1682 Barbot 528, 548
1682-95 Tilleman 120f
1688-1702 Bosman 86
1721-22 Atkins 100 (Cape Coast)

385WOOD

386See : HEAD-RESTS
See : DISHES
See : CARVINGS
See : CHESTS
See : COMBS
See : DRUMS

387WREATHS / GARLANDS

3881600-01 Marees 87a
1617-20 Brun 92

3. Conclusion

389These brief references already make it clear that there is a large amount of material available on a wide variety of topics, in many cases spread over a period of more than two centuries. Of course many of the references are difficult to interpret. But I think it is still legitimate to complain that most scholars who have written about material culture simply have not done enough homework. The potential for writing the 'social biography of things' is certainly there, even for this early period.

390Looking at the list also reveals some aspects of material culture that have hitherto received no attention, often because a single reference, taken alone, did not seem reliable or significant enough to merit comment. For example, had the use of cords of teeth been mentioned by only one author, one might attribute it to pure speculation about the exotic Other; but when we find Müller, Loyer and Barbot - three authors who probably had no influence on one another - describing similar phenomena, this calls for analysis.

391The chronology of the references is worth looking at too. Although we find a few items of material culture mentioned in sixteenth-century sources, Pieter de Marees' book of 1602 stands out as a milestone in the documentation of material culture for this region. From the 1660s to the 1680s we have a wealth of documentation, partly due to the involvement of many different European nations in the commerce of Gold Coast during this period.

392This list is provisional and will have to be extended. It is also, as I have said, somewhat arbitrary both with respect to what constitutes 'material culture' and which category best fits a particular entry. But if it does nothing else, it should at least encourage scholars to go back to the sources.

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Bibliographie

FAGE, J. D., 1994, A Guide to Original Sources for Precolonial Western Africa published in European Languages, for the Most Part in Book Form, Madison, African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2nd edition (original edition 1987) [Digitalized version: http://libtext.library.wisc.edu/Africana/].
JONES, A., 1986, « Semper aliquid veteris: Printed sources for the history of the Ivory and Gold Coasts, 1500-1750 », Journal of African History 27, 215-35.
—, 1994, « Drink deep, or taste not: Thoughts on the use of early European records in the study of African material culture », History in Africa 21, 349-70.
MAKEPEACE, M., 1991, Trade on the Guinea Coast 1657-1666 : The Correspondence of the English East India Company, Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
METCALF, G., 1987. « A microcosm of why Africans sold slaves », Journal of African History 28, 377-94.

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Notes

1 Jones (1994), originally presented at a conference in Bellagio in 1988.
2 In an earlier article (Jones, 1986) I had shown some of the dangers involved in using early sources uncritically.
3 In most cases my dates agree with those given in Fage (1994).
4 See, for example, Law (1997) ; Makepeace (1991) ; Metcalf (1987).
5 Beads are not included as a separate category (as opposed to “ornaments”) unless the source refers to the local production of beads.
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Pour citer cet article

Référence papier

Adam Jones, « Written Sources for the Material Culture of the Gold Coast before 1800 », Journal des africanistes, 75-2 | 2005, 99.

Référence électronique

Adam Jones, « Written Sources for the Material Culture of the Gold Coast before 1800 », Journal des africanistes [En ligne], 75-2 | 2005, mis en ligne le 15 décembre 2008, consulté le 24 mai 2017. URL : http://africanistes.revues.org/102

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Auteur

Adam Jones

Department of Anthropology, Syracuse University, USA.

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